Nomadic shepherd Aaron Fletcher lives life in a completely different way:
His systems are brilliant. I am very impressed by how he figured out the logistics of caring for sheep, feeding himself and having shelter using very little resources. Stories like these are the reason I subscribe to Kirsten Dirksen’s channel. It’s not the life most of us would choose, but it’s certainly resourceful. This man could shrug off an economic collapse better than most.
Ecovila Nomade / Instituto Çarakura (Brazil) & Ecovila La Rosina (Spain) With macro goals of enhancing natural buildings on the two properties, it was the underlying goals of ensuring comfortable and welcoming spaces for volunteers and guests that really motivated these two teams from Brazil and Spain. Beyond the physical manifestations, as we’ve witnessed with …
Around the 17th century, the Dutch started reinforcing their dykes and harbours with sturdy mats the size of football pitches – hand-woven from thousands of twigs grown on nearby coppice plantations. These “fascine mattresses” were weighted with rocks and sunk into canals, estuaries, and rivers.
This article contains many images and would be a 12.1 MB download from this website. Therefore, I kindly invite you to read the article on our solar powered website, where it has been compressed to 1.90 MB.
Read about how one suburb created a community garden that demonstrates a permaculture response to land repair, community fellowship, and growing food.
The post Growing Community Against Steep Odds: A Community Garden Story appeared first on Tenth Acre Farm.
The post China Is Vehemently Urging Citizens to STOCKPILE FOOD Before Winter appeared first on The Organic Prepper.
The mammogram paradox is that women who are harmed the most, are the ones who claim the greatest benefit.
While false-positive results, pain during the procedure, and radiation exposure may be among the most frequent harms associated with mammogram screening, overdiagnosis “is now recognized as the most serious downside of population breast screening.” Overdiagnosis is so serious that the question has been raised whether it makes breast screening “worthless.” Indeed, the value of performing routine mammograms at all is being questioned due to overdiagnosis, which is “the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer that would never have become a threat to a woman’s health, or even apparent, during her lifetime.”
“The public thinks once you have a cancer cell in your body, it will progress predictably and inevitably to a terrible death. That is simply not true of most cancers.” Some cancers outgrow their blood supply and become starved and wither away, and others are recognized by our immune system and successfully contained. Others still “are simply not that aggressive in the first place,” so, although they might continue to grow unchecked, it may be at such a slow rate that it would be decades or even centuries before they could be big enough to cause any problems. So, in effect, you would die with your tumor instead of from your tumor.
Indeed, autopsy studies of young and middle-aged women who died in a car accident, for example, found that 20 percent of them had cancer in their breast. That’s about one in five women walking around with breast cancer. Now, that sounds a lot scarier than it is because, in that age range, the risk of dying from breast cancer is less than 1 percent. In fact, your risk of ever dying from breast cancer in your lifetime is less than 4 percent, which goes to show that many of these cancers that are found incidentally—most of them, in fact—would likely have fizzled out on their own.
The problem is that we continue to have an antiquated definition of cancer that dates back to the 1860s. To this day, cancer is defined by what it looks like under a microscope, not by what its subsequent behavior is. So, according to that mid-19th century definition, one in five women followed in that one study technically had cancer, but that doesn’t necessarily mean the cancer would go on to do anything.
So, if cancer is so common, do you even want to know about it? This is the question I discuss in my video Understanding the Mammogram Paradox. Certainly, if the cancer will progress and cause a problem, then catching it early could save your life, but if it’s never going to grow, if it’s going to remain microscopic, then finding it could actually hurt you. A likely scenario upon finding it could be: We found that you have cancer so we have to treat it with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation—whatever it takes—and then you’d suffer all the physical effects of treatment and the psychological hell of fearing for your life. But, if in fact the cancer was never going to cause a problem, all of that would have been completely unnecessary. That is overdiagnosis.
These kinds of car accident-type autopsy studies, as you can see at 2:55 in my video, show that 7 to 39 percent of women aged 40 to 70 are walking around with tiny breast cancers and 30 to 70 percent of men older than 60 have prostate cancers. And, up to 100 percent of older adults have microscopic cancers in their thyroid glands, yet only 1 in a 1,000—0.1 percent—ends up suffering or dying from thyroid cancer. Normally, the cancer just sits there and doesn’t do anything. Likewise, even though the majority of older men may have tiny cancers in their prostates or a significant number of women have them in their breasts, the lifetime risk of death or cancer spread is only about 4 percent. So, if you had a magic wand that could pick up cancer with 100 percent accuracy and waved it in front of people, your overdiagnosis rate—the probability that the prostate cancer you’d pick up would have turned out to be harmless—is about 90 percent. This is also the case for nearly every single thyroid cancer and a significant proportion of breast cancer cases. This is why screening for these cancers—cancer of the prostate, thyroid, and breast—can be tricky or even potentially dangerous. In many cases and sometimes most cases, you would have been better off if they had never found the cancers.
This is not true for all cancers, though. Researchers have found “little evidence of overdiagnosis of either cervical or colorectal cancer,” for example. Those cancers seem to continue to grow, so the earlier you catch them, the better. When pap smears were instituted, cervical cancer death rates plummeted, for instance, and just a single sigmoidoscopy performed between the ages of 55 and 65 may decrease one’s risk of dying from colorectal cancer by up to 40 percent. In contrast, a study found that “annual mammography in women aged 40-59 does not reduce mortality from breast cancer” at all. But, if we assume a 15 percent drop and a 30 percent overdiagnosis rate, which most studies have found, that would “mean that for every 2000 women invited for [mammogram] screening throughout 10 years, 1 woman will have her life prolonged and 10 healthy women, who would not have breast cancer diagnosed if there had not been screening, will be treated unnecessarily.” That is, ten healthy women would be overdiagnosed. If they had skipped screening, they would not have been told they have breast cancer and undergone treatment they didn’t need.
“Furthermore, about 1000 women…will have had a false-positive diagnosis,” a false alarm that can be stressful while you wait for the results. But the harms caused by becoming a cancer patient unnecessarily can be lifelong—and can even mean a shorter life. “It is also important to be aware that some of the healthy overdiagnosed women will die from their treatment.” For example, radiation treatments for breast cancer can’t help but penetrate down into the heart as well, increasing the risk of heart disease, which is the number one killer of women.
This raises questions about doing routine mammography screening at all, as it “converts thousands of healthy women into cancer patients unnecessarily”—and some may not make it out alive. Ironically, though, those who do survive become mammography’s biggest cheerleaders, thinking mammograms saved their lives. The mammogram found a cancer they didn’t even know they had. Yes, the treatment was rough with the surgery, radiation, and chemo drugs, but it worked and life was saved. “What a relief she got that mammogram!” “You should get one, too!” In actuality, the more likely scenario—in fact, maybe the ten times more likely scenario—is that the treatment didn’t do anything because the cancer wouldn’t have hurt you anyway. So, you went through all that pain and suffering for nothing. That’s the crazy thing about mammograms: the people who are harmed the most are the ones who claim the greatest benefit.
- The mammogram paradox: Women who are harmed the most are the ones who claim the greatest benefit.
- Overdiagnosis—the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer that never would have even threatened the woman’s health—is recognized as the most serious downside of population breast screening, even more than false-positives, pain during the procedure, and radiation exposure.
- It is a myth that a cancer cell will necessarily progress and result in death. Some cancers wither away on their own, others are successfully contained by our immune system, and many may grow so slowly that it may be decades before they could be problematic.
- Cancer, when found, may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, causing physical and psychological trauma. If that cancer was never going to cause any health problems, none of that would have been necessary.
- For example, 7 to 39 percent of women aged 40 to 70 have tiny breast cancers, 30 to 70 percent of men older than 60 have prostate cancers, and up to 100 percent of older adults have microscopic cancers in their thyroid glands, yet only 0.1 percent ends up suffering or dying from thyroid cancer.
- Because of overdiagnosis, screening for cancers of the prostate, thyroid, and breast can be tricky or even potentially dangerous, but researchers have found little evidence of overdiagnosis of colorectal or cervical cancer, so early identification is best.
- Routine mammograms have been said to unnecessarily convert thousands of healthy women into cancer patients. Ironically, those who survive often credit mammography for saving their lives by first identifying cancer—even though it may be ten times more likely the cancer wouldn’t have ended up causing any problems. But, because of overdiagnosis, she may have undergone surgery, radiation, and chemo anyway.
There is just so much confusion when it comes to mammography, combined with the corrupting commercial interests of a billion-dollar industry. As with any important health decision, everyone should be fully informed of the risks and benefits, and make up their own mind about their own bodies. This is the eighth in my 14-part series on mammograms, which includes:
- Nine Out of Ten Women Misinformed About Mammograms
- Mammogram Recommendations: Why the Conflicting Guidelines?
- Flashback Friday: Should Women Get Mammograms Starting at Age 40?
- Consequences of False-Positive Mammogram Results
- Do Mammograms Hurt?
- Can Mammogram Radiation Cause Breast Cancer?
- Understanding the Mammogram Paradox
- Overtreatment of Stage 0 Breast Cancer DCIS
- Women Deserve to Know the Truth About Mammograms
- Breast Cancer and the Five-Year Survival Rate Myth
- Why Mammograms Don’t Appear to Save Lives
- Why Patients Aren’t Informed About Mammograms
- The Pros and Cons of Mammograms
For more on breast cancer, see my videos Oxidized Cholesterol 27HC May Explain Three Breast Cancer Mysteries, Eggs and Breast Cancer, and Flashback Friday: Can Flax Seeds Help Prevent Breast Cancer?.
I was able to cover colon cancer screening in just one video. If you missed it, see Should We All Get Colonoscopies Starting at Age 50?.
Also on the topic of medical screenings, check out Flashback Friday: Worth Getting an Annual Health Check-Up and Physical Exam?, Is It Worth Getting Annual Health Check-Ups?, and Is It Worth Getting an Annual Physical Exam?.
Michael Greger, M.D.
PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live presentations:
- 2019: Evidence-Based Weight Loss
- 2016: How Not To Die: The Role of Diet in Preventing, Arresting, and Reversing Our Top 15 Killers
- 2015: Food as Medicine: Preventing and Treating the Most Dreaded Diseases with Diet
- 2014: From Table to Able: Combating Disabling Diseases with Food
- 2013: More Than an Apple a Day
- 2012: Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death
“Why would you grow potatoes?” you might ask. “Why bother? They are cheap! You can get a sack of them for a few bucks! Why not grow something expensive, like fresh basil!”
For the answer, keep reading!Why You Should Be Growing Potatoes
There are multiple reasons to grow your own potatoes. Sure, they are cheap. Right now! We don’t know if potatoes will always be cheap, or even available in the store. How much do you trust the shipping lines that reach all the way from Idaho to your local grocery?
And you don’t need any expensive or special seed potatoes to grow your own. You can buy a bag of typical white potatoes from your local shopping center, bring them home, and cut them up, making sure that on each slice you have a sprout (or an eye) on it. Yes, I know they say you can’t grow grocery store potatoes, but you can!
Then stick each slice into preferably soft soil about an inch deep and cover it over. Plant in the cool season, a few weeks before your last frost date.
In no time at all the’ll be popping up out of the soil, and a few months later you’ll have amazingly tasty, home grown–and cheap–potatoes.
Here is a video on how to grow potatoes the way we do – it’s simple!Three Good Reasons to Grow Potatoes
Besides the potential supply line issues, here are three more good reasons to grow potatoes.
First of all, the taste. All you have to do is boil them down for a while, mash them, put butter and salt in them, and from my own experiences I can tell that they are the best potatoes you will ever try, period. You cannot buy potatoes that taste as good as homegrown potatoes.
Second of all, potatoes are an ideal survival crop. With a bed of potatoes, you’ll have a good chance of survival if the world collapses. They are not a very big root, but it only takes a few of them to fill you up. Potatoes are high in calories, so when you are filled up they will keep you running for a fairly long time.
Thirdly, potatoes are easy to store. You can chop them up and can them, you can freeze them. Heck, you could even dry them, turn them into a powder, and there you have your instant mashed potatoes! You can put them in a root cellar, you can keep them in a dark pantry, or you can turn them into vodka.
And here’s another thing, potatoes are high in vitamin C, as well as various other nutrients.The Downside of Potatoes
But, sadly, alongside all of the good things about potatoes is one very bad thing, solanine, which most everybody is slightly allergic to while others are highly allergic to it, including myself. For even the son of the best known gardener still living has to be allergic to something, and so I was unfortunately chosen by the good God to be allergic to this creamy white, nutty, and savory root. Solanine is the plant toxin that makes green potatoes poisonous, and even lily-white potatoes still contain some. If you have problems with arthritis or join pain, potatoes should be eliminated from your diet if possible in case they are part of the problem.
Potatoes are also bad for low carb diets, since they rank high on the glycemic index, but, I mean, nothing was made perfect, now was it?Just Grow Potatoes!
Potatoes are one of the best-tasting roots of all time, they are a very easy plant to grow, they are high in calories and they can keep people alive for a long time, unless British soldiers are stealing your fair share of them.
Next time you go to a store I challenge you to buy a bag full of potatoes, cut em up, stick them in the ground, and bang, you will be growing some amazing potatoes!
-Post by Ezekiel Good
Late autumn is the perfect time to create an incredible compost pile, especially when you consider all of the amazing ingredients you can find for free from fall decorations! Autumn …
The post How To Create A Great Compost Pile From Fall Decorations! appeared first on Old World Garden Farms.
My friend passed the paper, and I read the headline: “Invasive Weed Killing Animals — Wow! That’s scary. What else does burdock kill?”
“Just about everything in its path by the sound of it.”
“We seem to have a lot of invasive plants taking over.”
“The powers that be always have a great plan,” my friend said. “Until their great plan creates another problem.”
I chuckled. Usually destroying one problem included introducing yet another. Like an invasive weed to kill off an invasive weed only to become the new invasive terror, the kudzu plant is one example.ruth hartnup // flickr
“It’s called Arctium minus,” my friend continued. “Common burdock. It’s destroying our ecosystem in many ways.”
“Primarily the burrs. When they attach themselves to fabric, fur … you name it. It’s stronger and more destructive than Velcro. In fact, once on sheep, the wool has to be discarded because it’s not usable. Attached to horses and cows, it makes them ill and not marketable. These burrs have a tendency to catch some creatures, particularly songbirds, and they literally starve to death. Not a pretty sight.”
“Oh my!” I exclaimed. “I guess it overtakes native species and unbalances our ecosystem in the process?”A Little About Burdock
Burdock, from the Asteraceae family (genus Arctium) is a biennial plant native primarily to Europe and Asia, but found just about anywhere around the world. It is a large plant. At its full height, about 7 feet tall, it’s pretty difficult to miss. That height plus the reddish stems, large, heart-shaped leaves with toothed edges and hairy undersides, and of course, the purple flowers with spiny, hooked leaves (the leaves can be up to 20 inches long) — which when gone to seed, become those annoying burrs that latch onto everything. And those burrs aren’t small either — about an inch in diameter.
Ah yes, the purple flower that blooms from July to October might be pleasant to the eye, but when it goes to seed, those leaves turn the flower into a round and bristly nuisance. A deadly one, too, which is unfortunate considering how beneficial this flower is to honeybees who collect its pollen and nectar around August when other pollinating plants, like clover, are dying back for the season and goldenrod hasn’t started to bloom.
Related Post: Homestead Stories: Japanese KnotweedBurdock Habitat
A very sturdy plant, common burdock can grow almost anywhere, including waste places, pastures, open words, roadsides, along fence lines, and in barnyards. Interestingly, however, is that it seldom grows in cultivated land.Burdock Uses
Deadly when in its natural habitat, various parts of the common burdock plant are both edible and have medicinal uses. The root is sometimes used as food; the root, leaf and seed are used for various medical ailments. Conditions such as skin and stomach problems and joint swelling are the most common ailments treated with various parts of the common burdock plant. The chemicals present in common burdock are believed to be beneficial in combatting bacterial infections and inflammation.
Some research shows that creams made from the fruit can reduce those annoying eye wrinkles known as crow’s feet. In tea, burdock has been shown to help prevent the recurrence of diverticulitis, although it doesn’t stop the bleeding associated with it. Some studies show that burdock is helpful in treating breast cancer, diabetes, fluid retention, fever, anorexia, stomach conditions, gout, acne, dry skin, psoriasis, and other conditions. Research is slim on how effective these medicinal uses are. Like anything else, use with caution and seek professional advice as to the merits, safety, and efficiency of common burdock as a medical treatment.isamiga76 // flickr
As for food and drink, common burdock is a staple in many diets. The taproot of the young plant is often harvested to be eaten like any other root vegetable. It’s found in popular European and Asian dishes. In Russia, the roots actually substitute for potatoes. The common burdock root is crisp like a potato or carrot, and it has a mildly sweet flavor. Like many root crops, there is that musty flavor of the mud in which it was grown, but this can be soaked off. The root is often pickled, and it cooks well in soups and stews.
The young flower stalks, if harvested in late spring before the flowers appear, is thoroughly peeled and eaten raw or boiled in saltwater. The taste is similar to that of artichokes. The young, soft leaves are also popular in Japanese cuisine.
With the increased attention to high fiber diets in the late 20th century, common burdock became a popular culinary additive. It’s full of dietary fiber, as well as calcium, potassium, and amino acids. It’s also low in calories.
Like dandelions, common burdock is a popular ingredient in drinks. In the United Kingdom where common burdock has its origins as a medieval mead, common burdock can be found in soft drinks. Before the trend to use hops as a bittering agent in beer, common burdock root was the main component.How Safe Is Burdock?
Like anything else, there are some unsavory and unsafe side effects to using common burdock for medicinal purposes. There may be some beneficial qualities, but it can also be dangerously toxic and even deadly. Medicinal products made with common burdock have been associated with poisonings when the plant has been contaminated with the root of belladonna (a poisonous perennial of the nightshade family, Solanacea). Whilst these poisonings have not been caused directly from common burdock, it gives one pause to wonder: Do the two plants growing in close proximity to each other cause the cross-contamination poisoning? Or is it a result of harvesting the two plants (belladonna, as well as being poisonous, is also deadly) and processing the two together?Some Things To Be Cautious About When Dealing With Burdock
- When taken by mouth, common burdock is considered mostly safe if eaten with food. However, there is insufficient information on its safety, reliability, and possible side effects when taken by mouth.
- When applied directly to the skin, once again, common burdock is considered safe, but only for use up to four weeks. Common burdock may cause an allergic reaction to people who have already shown sensitivities to certain herbs and flowers, and common burdock, when applied directly to the skin, can cause a rash.
- There is little reliable information to support the use of common burdock safely while pregnant or breast feeding.
- Although some research suggests common burdock is good for treating bleeding disorders and blood clots, other research suggests that it might increase the risk of bleeding for people with bleeding disorders. Also note that taking common burdock with other medications intending to slow blood clotting might increase both bruising and bleeding.
- Those who already experience allergy symptoms to plants like ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many others in the Asteraceae family, are likely to show similar allergy symptoms for common burdock.
- There is some evidence to support the use of common burdock to lower blood sugar. The problem is, taking common burdock might lower blood sugar levels too much, especially for those diabetics already taking medication to control their blood sugar levels.
- Research suggests that common burdock might increase the risk of bleeding both during and after surgery, so it’s recommended to stop taking it at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery, and definitely let the surgeon and health care professionals know you’ve been taking it.
There are many other marginally tested uses for common burdock. Most of the suggested medicinal benefits of common burdock are sketchy at best. In other words, no one really knows if common burdock is beneficial or dangerous. Err on the side of caution and make sure you do the research and consult the professionals.How to Control Burdock
Despite of its culinary and supposed medicinal benefits, common burdock is a blight on the natural habitat of many wildlife species, and its invasive nature strangles and prohibits the growth of other plant life. Other than harsh defoliant chemicals (that are just as harmful to both the environment and all who live in it), or digging up every plant, roots and all (a mind-boggling task at best), the only known remedy to eliminate common burdock are specific bugs like the larva of the ghost moth and other lepidoptera like the lime-speck pug. The larva eats the plant voraciously, but unfortunately, it also eats other plant life as well.john Munt // Flickr
Is It Wise to Import Another Non-native Plant of Insect to Stem the Invasion?
This is a loaded question that has besieged researchers throughout time. Importing plant, animal, and insect life may have short-term benefits in eliminating one problem, but ultimately, once that problem is dealt with, the import may create new problems of its own. It’s an ongoing debate and perhaps there is no right answer. Monitoring new growth of common burdock and advising the various councils who deal with invasive species control is just one step toward dealing with the issue.
If your fruit tree isn’t fruiting, it might need a good scare to get started!
I repeated the story in my popular presentation 21 Amazing Trees You Can Grow from Seed.
In a recent comment below that video, Felicity writes:
“That’s a crazy story about your friend in Puerto Rico, about 10 years ago I heard a similar story. I think it’s an Arabia/Middle East region method, they have this custom where if a tree will not produce fruit, they threaten it. You are supposed to go up to the tree with a friend, and talk about how angry you are that the tree will not produce fruit, and how you are going to cut it down. You bring along a knife or some other sharp object with you, and as you tell your friend that you are going to cut the tree down because it does not give you any fruit, you begin to stab at the tree. Your friend stops you and says no, do not kill the tree, give it a chance and see if it produces fruit this next season before you cut it down. They said if you do this, the tree will always produce a nice crop of fruit the next season. I actually did this with my friend on a tree that’s in his yard that wasn’t producing, I think it actually worked.”
That story reminds me of the parable in Luke 13:6-9.
“(Jesus) also spoke this parable: “A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. Then he said to the keeper of his vineyard, ‘Look, for three years I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree and find none. Cut it down; why does it use up the ground?’ But he answered and said to him, ‘Sir, let it alone this year also, until I dig around it and fertilize it. And if it bears fruit, well. But if not, after that you can cut it down.’ ”
Here’s another thought: maybe sometimes we need some pressure or a threat in our life before we bear fruit.
How hard do things have to get before we produce something good for our Master?
Just a thought.
As for the trees, I do think there is a certain connection between us and the plant world, just as there is between man and the animals. Though our plants respond on a much slower scale than do our pets and livestock, I do think they respond. To care, to words, to our presence. Maybe showing a little disapproval gives them a kick in the tail. Or maybe it’s all nuts.
Still, I like the idea. “Fruit, sucka, or Ima gonna cut you!” I want it to be true.
Anyone else tried threatening a tree to make it fruit?
The post Fruit Tree Not Fruiting? SCARE it into Making Fruit! appeared first on The Survival Gardener.
On September 23, 2021, Biden suggested a new Comptroller of the Currency – a Russian named Saule Omarova. Here’s what you need to know about her.
“The… Read the rest
Compost can easily be contaminated with persistent herbicide which may harm your garden. Learn the cause and how to keep it out of your compost bin.
The post How to Keep Persistent Herbicides Out of Your Compost Bin appeared first on Tenth Acre Farm.
Wild Parsnip, Pastinaca sativa, is native to Europe but is found in all of North America except Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and Florida. It’s a root vegetable closely related to carrots and parsley and has been cultivated since at least the early Greeks. It was part of the tribute the Germans gave to Roman Emperor Tiberius. Both English immigrants to America and French to Canada brought the plant with them.
If we combine two reports we can get a good accounting of Wild Parsnip’s nutrient profile. A 100 gram sample has 76 calories, 1.7 grams of protein, 0.5 grams of fat (mono- and saturated) 17.5 grams of carbohydrates and two grams of fiber. Vitamin A is minor — 3 RE, but vitamin C is good: 16 mg a little over a third of your daily need. The B vitamins are B1 (thiamin) 0.08 mg, B2 (riboflavin) 0.09 mg, B3 (niacin) 0.2 mg, and B6 (pyridoxine) 0.85 mg. The minerals are potassium 541 mg, phosphorus 77 mg, calcium 50 mg, magnesium 29.4 mg, sodium 12 mg and iron 0.7 mg.
Tasty and nutritious so what’s the down side? It’s in the same family as Poisonous Hemlock so you have to make sure of the identification. Taste and aroma is not enough. By the account of victims Poisonous Hemlock root also smells and tastes like parsnip. That said Poison Hemlock produces white flowers on stalks creating a more rounded appearance like an umbrella. I tell my students a white umbrella made up of smaller umbrellas. Wild parsnip has yellow flowers on stalks producing a more flat-topped appearance. Wild Parsnip has celery-like leaves and deeply grooved main stalk that is green. Poison Hemlock has smoother stems if not splotched with purple and the leaves are more fern-like.
What Pastinaca means is foggy. It can be from “pastinum” meaning food or to prepare the ground for planting a vine. If so then “sativa” is redundant as it means “sown.” Parsnip is from Pastinum which passed into Old French as pasnaie then into Middle English as pasnepe. The current ending -nip was added by mistake because folks thought it was related to turnips which it is not.
Green Deane’s Itemized Plant Profile
IDENTIFICATION: A two-year plant, basal rosette of roughly hairy leaves, strongly aromatic when crushed. Leaves compound, pinnated, broad, with toothed edges, leaf stems grooved, main stalk grooved, second-year stalk taller than first year. Blossoms yellow making a flat-top arrangement.
TIME OF YEAR: This is a plant you have to identify this year and the harvest next year. The first year it is a basal rosette growing a tasty root. The second year it sends up a flower stalk. Flowering starts in May and can last to July or even October depending on climate and location. You can also harvest roots at the very beginning of year two. But once the plant is flowering the roots grow woody.
ENVIRONMENT: It is rudual meaning it likes disturbed ground from abandoned fields to roadsides. It prefer a little dryer soil to a little wetter but it can some moisture.
METHOD OF PREPARATION: Be sure of your identification. Check with a local expert. Roots raw, boiled, steamed, sauteed, mashed, pureed, baked used in soups, stews, sauces. Also made into beer and wine. Young leaves coked. Seeds used for a dill-like seasoning. Wear gloves and a long-sleeve shirt when harvesting just as you would cultivated parsnips. Sap on sweaty skin which is then exposed to sun can cause a rash that can last for months.